Thus, Garner allows officers to determine the meaning of “life” threatening: The risk to life need not be real at the time of the incident; it must be apparent. This is another feature of many use of force incidents that makes identifying brutality or excessive use of force difficult. 78–79) argued that because the State “claims the monopoly on the legitimate use of force” to enforce its laws, politicians who hope to gain the “obedience” of those whom they govern need not simply do the right thing; politicians must appear to do the right thing. Kane (2005) made similar findings in New York City in his examination of the consequences of “over-policing” and police misconduct (including violence) on violent crime. An Empirical Analysis of Racial Di↵erences in Police Use of Force⇤ Roland G. Fryer, Jr.† July 2017 Abstract This paper explores racial di↵erences in police use of force. O’Brien, A. J., & Thom, K. (2014). If the public becomes polarized over issues related to the distribution of legal authority, the government may lose legitimacy and find it difficult to fulfill its “regulatory role” in society (Sunshine and Tyler 2003, p. 515) without having to resort to the frequent use of physical coercion. In fact, it as a virtual axiom in policing that the use of force is a “tool,” whose use should be regulated but not taken away. For example, officers regarded as professionals – and who usually conducted themselves appropriately during most police-citizen encounters – sometimes became enforcers during certain incidents. IvyPanda. A research paper about police brutality must show how highly publicized incidents demonstrate that police misconduct has severe adverse effects on victims of abuse and diminishes public trust in law enforcement. Police Officer Use of Deadly Force. Though it is the case that occupational templates-perspectives often fail to yield empirical support, at least one recent study has offered some empirical validation of Van Maanen’s (1978) “asshole” thesis. If you need help writing your assignment, please use our research paper writing service and buy a paper on any topic at affordable price. In the United States, however, police agencies are not required to report use of force – let alone excessive force – incidents to any centralized authority, leading researchers and policy-makers to make guesses about the frequency and severity of police brutality. Each of these avenues of recourse has varying chances of success, depending on the several factors related to the event, including the social desirability of the accuser, the degree to which the incident occurred in the public realm and/or in view of credible witnesses, the extent to which the accuser may have attempted to initially evade or who otherwise resisted police officers, and in many cases the quality of the accuser’s legal counsel. It is common knowledge that at times, some police officers use more force than is necessary on suspects they encounter; some engage in profit-motivated misconduct and then lie on the witness stand to protect their corrupt enterprises; and these practices often take place in the most socially and economically vulnerable communities (Kane 2002). "Police Force in Interactions with Mentally Ill." December 24, 2020. https://ivypanda.com/essays/police-force-in-interactions-with-mentally-ill/. Get discount 10% for the first order. The authors concluded that these tools would have a great impact on police methods in the future. Rates of misconduct decreased as diversity increased, independent of external factors that often influence organizational rates of misconduct. Starting at the individual-level, in his largely ethnographic study of the police in “Laconia” (a pseudonym), Muir (1977) interviewed and then observed a group of police officers in an effort to understand how they responded to “critical” incidents in their work settings. Adding controls that account for important context and civilian behavior reduces, but cannot fully explain, these disparities. As previously alluded to, people who experience police brutality or the excessive use of force have recourse through the conventional mechanisms of police accountability: the citizen complaint process, mediation, and the courts. The main goal of this paper is to research the issue of the police use of force involving mentally ill people. This is the Federal civil rights statute that allows persons alleging harm by police (and any representative of the State who may have acted under color of authority) to seek damages from both the individual officer(s) and the government agency that employed them. Research Method ExDS is a serious disorder that requires rapid medical intervention. Although the most participants were relatively satisfied with such interactions, 32% stated that these were negative life experiences (Livingston et al., 2014). Jauchem, J. R. (2015). Group Threat, Police Officer Diversity and the Deadly Use of Police Force Columbia Public Law Research Paper No. Such findings demonstrate the importance of the social ecological contexts in which officers work as determinants of their behaviors. By understanding some of the causes of police brutality, society and policy-makers have a better chance of developing prevention strategies that can minimize the use of excessive force, particularly in the most vulnerable communities. The media has played a mark role in demonstrating the abuse of force used by the police. An Empirical Analysis of Racial Di↵erences in Police Use of Force⇤ Roland G. Fryer, Jr.† July 2017 Abstract This paper explores racial di↵erences in police use of force. Can TASER electronic control devices cause cardiac arrest? Bibliography: Alpert, Geoffrey P., and Roger G. Dunham, Understanding Police Use of Force: Officers, Suspects, and Reciprocity. Therefore, some misconceptions might be seen in various publications on this topic. An officer formulates and carries out a decision to use force against a citizen by encoding situational information, making a decision to act, developing a plan of action, and initiating action. Conducted electrical weapons (CEWs) have become widespread due to their useful characteristics. As part of this discussion the concepts of excessive force and deadly force will also be covered in detail The issue of police use of force is tricky. As a result, officers in such locations are often made to believe that the only way for them to maintain order is through the use of highly aggressive enforcement strategies that may translate into excessive force. 2020. For full functionality of this site it is necessary to enable JavaScript. Van Maanen (1978) identifies the “asshole” as one lens through which to view the use of force encounter. TASER® conducted electrical weapons: Misconceptions in the scientific/medical and other literature. This problem could be ameliorated by the implementation of a national reporting system on the police use of force. Police Ethics - Use of Deadly Force by Law Enforcement Research Papers look at the political, legal, and social side to this debate. Because police brutality is often committed out of malice, disrespect, and/or officers’ desires to reassert their authority over a suspect (e.g., Skolnick and Fyfe 1993), several academic researchers often regard excessive force as an example of police abuse of authority (e.g., Carter 1985) rather than a mere “excess” of force. Approximately 8% of the affected die from this medical condition (Nielsen, 2014). To address this question, the observation method of research was applied. To date, the beating of Rodney King represents the archetype of police brutality, and it encapsulates multiple conceptual perspectives – from the levels of the social interactionist, workgroup, and cultural – aimed at explaining why some police officers resort to excessive force during their encounters with members of the public. Society and the courts do not require police officers to engage in fist fights with suspects in order to gain compliance. This is a public problem we shouldn't leave behind. The study described 8 cases of unexpected cardiac arrest occurred due to the electric impulses produced by a TASER (Zipes, 2014). Use of force Police use of aggression and force may be warranted in cases where there is threat to their lives, and the suspect uses lethal force and is non-compliant (Paoline & Terrill, 2011). In each event, the triggering incident was related to some form of police abuse, and all post-riot analyses identified abusive police practices, largely in communities characterized by racially concentrated economic resource deprivation and social marginalization, as major causal factors (see: Independent Commission 1991; Kerner Commission 1968; Skolnick and Fyfe 1993). Copyright © 2020 - IvyPanda is a trading name of Edustream Yale University Press, New Haven, pp 94–112, Tyler T (1990) Why people obey the law. !” That is, although it is possible to mobilize the government without using the police, it is often not feasible to do so. AN EXAMINATION OF POLICE BRUTALITY IN THE UNITED STATES: WORKING AND LIVING IN A STATE OF FEAR Latrice Marshall Under the Supervision of Ann Krebs Byrne, MSE For this research paper, police brutality and the use of excessive force against minorities, specifically Black males, were examined. Seventy Western Australia Police … Oxford: Basil Blackwell, pp 207–225, Fyfe J (1997) Good policing. Christian science monitor. In 7,512 adult custody arrests…fewer than one out of five arrests involved police use of physical force. In abolishing this practice – which was known as the “fleeing felon rule” – the Court reasoned that using deadly force to apprehend a person suspected of having committed a felony, but who seemed to pose no imminent threat to life – constituted an unreasonable seizure of the person under the Fourth Amendment. In economically disadvantaged, and “extremely” economically disadvantaged, communities, police misconduct (including violence) led to subsequent increases in violent crime. The research conducted over the last 30 years on police use of force consistently calls for improved data collection at the local and national level. This report is a good summary of use of force research from several perspectives, including citizen complaints. This theory states that the main aspect that has the greatest impact on the people’s perceptions about the police “is whether an individual believes they were treated justly and fairly during personal encounters with agents of authority” (Livingston et al., 2014, p. 281). Criminal Justice > Forensic Psychology >Police Use of Force. This paper focuses on the theoretical motivations for use of excessive force by police officers. Technologies LLC, a company registered in Wyoming, USA. likelihood of police force use and its severity. For example, in a study of police misconduct in New York City police precincts, Kane (2002) found that the traditional antecedents of social disorganization – particularly, structural disadvantage – predicted increased rates of careerending police misconduct. In addition, evidence suggests that when line officers are involved in the development of use of force policies and field tactics designed to reduce police officer violence (i.e., Fyfe 1997), then the use of force within departments tends to decrease, partly because police officers view themselves as contributors to the policy development process, rather than simply as people who need to be controlled. The studies explored a variety of topics, ranging from media coverage of force to characteristics of deadly force … For example, the archetypal officer in Muir’s typology was the “professional” – i.e., a collective group of officers who could place themselves psychologically in the life circumstances of the suspects they encountered, and although professionals did not care to use force to resolve most conflicts during their engagements with members of the public, they used force when necessary to stop conflict, protect lives, and restore order. Among these, perhaps the gravest consequence is the loss of legitimacy police forces can experience when officers are viewed as brutal or abusive, and when community residents perceive little or no recourse to control them. Sometimes looking at examples of successful college essays can help you get the our experience with mark was amazing! 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